Recent Trends on Privacy-Preserving Technologies under Standardization at the IETF

Pratyush Dikshit, Jayasree Sengupta, Vaibhav Bajpai


End-users are concerned about protecting the privacy of their sensitive personal data that are generated while working on information systems. This extends to both the data they actively provide including personal identification in exchange for products and services as well as its related metadata such as unnecessary access to their location. This is when certain privacy-preserving technologies come into a place where Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) plays a major role in incorporating such technologies at the fundamental level. Thus, this paper offers an overview of the privacy-preserving mechanisms for layer 3 (i.e. IP) and above that are currently under standardization at the IETF. This includes encrypted DNS at layer 5 classified as DNS-over-TLS (DoT), DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH), and DNS-over-QUIC (DoQ) where the underlying technologies like QUIC belong to layer 4. Followed by that, we discuss Privacy Pass Protocol and its application in generating Private Access Tokens and Passkeys to replace passwords for authentication at the application layer (i.e. end-user devices). Lastly, to protect user privacy at the IP level, Private Relays and MASQUE are discussed. This aims to make designers, implementers, and users of the Internet aware of privacy-related design choices.

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